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Join now for free. There is some evidence that enemies of Galileo persuaded Urban that Simplicio was intended to be a caricature of him. Modern historians have dismissed this as most unlikely.

Dava Sobel argues that during this time, Urban had fallen under the influence of court intrigue and problems of state.

His friendship with Galileo began to take second place to his feelings of persecution and fear for his own life.

The problem of Galileo was presented to the pope by court insiders and enemies of Galileo, following claims by a Spanish cardinal that Urban was a poor defender of the church.

This situation did not bode well for Galileo's defense of his book. Multiple authors have argued that the Catholic Church, rather than Galileo, was scientifically justified in the dispute over the placement and rotation of the sun and earth, given available knowledge at the time.

Referring to Bellarmine's letter to Foscarini, physicist Pierre Duhem "suggests that in one respect, at least, Bellarmine had shown himself a better scientist than Galileo by disallowing the possibility of a 'strict proof of the earth's motion', on the grounds that an astronomical theory merely ' saves the appearances ' without necessarily revealing what 'really happens'".

In his book, Scientific Blunders , Robert Youngson indicates that Galileo struggled for two years against the ecclesiastical censor to publish a book promoting heliocentrism.

He claims the book passed only as a result of possible idleness or carelessness on the part of the censor, who was eventually dismissed.

On the other hand, Jerome K. Langford and Raymond J. They claim Urban personally asked Galileo to give arguments for and against heliocentrism in the book, to include Urban's own arguments, and for Galileo not to advocate heliocentrism.

Some historians emphasize Galileo's confrontation not only with the church, but also with Aristotelian philosophy, either secular or religious.

According to a controversial alternative theory proposed by Pietro Redondi in , the main reason for Galileo's condemnation in was his attack on the Aristotelian doctrine of matter rather than his defence of Copernicanism.

Redondi's hypothesis concerning the hidden motives behind the trial has been criticized, and mainly rejected, by other Galileo scholars.

In the Catholic Church dropped the general prohibition of books advocating heliocentrism from the Index of Forbidden Books.

After the matter had been reconsidered by the Congregation of the Index and the Holy Office, Anfossi's decision was overturned.

In , Pope John Paul II expressed the hope that "theologians, scholars and historians, animated by a spirit of sincere collaboration, will study the Galileo case more deeply and in loyal recognition of wrongs, from whatever side they come.

The Church at the time of Galileo kept much more closely to reason than did Galileo himself, and she took into consideration the ethical and social consequences of Galileo's teaching too.

Her verdict against Galileo was rational and just, and the revision of this verdict can be justified only on the grounds of what is politically opportune.

Ratzinger did not directly say whether he agreed or disagreed with Feyerabend's assertions, but did say in this same context that "It would be foolish to construct an impulsive apologetic on the basis of such views.

In , it was reported that the Catholic Church had turned towards vindicating Galileo: Thanks to his intuition as a brilliant physicist and by relying on different arguments, Galileo, who practically invented the experimental method, understood why only the sun could function as the centre of the world, as it was then known, that is to say, as a planetary system.

The error of the theologians of the time, when they maintained the centrality of the Earth, was to think that our understanding of the physical world's structure was, in some way, imposed by the literal sense of Sacred Scripture In January , students and professors protested the planned visit of Pope Benedict XVI to La Sapienza University , stating in a letter that the pope's expressed views on Galileo "offend and humiliate us as scientists who are loyal to reason and as teachers who have dedicated our lives to the advance and dissemination of knowledge".

In addition to the large non-fiction literature and the many documentary films about Galileo and the Galileo affair, there have also been several treatments in historical plays and films.

The Museo Galileo has posted a listing of several of the plays. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tommaso Caccini , a Dominican friar , appears to have made the first dangerous attack on Galileo.

Preaching a sermon in Florence at the end of , he denounced Galileo, his associates, and mathematicians in general a category that included astronomers.

Quoted in Langford, Quoted in Langford, [25]. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Blackwell , p. Finocchiaro , p.

How to Find a Habitable Planet illustrated ed. University of Toronto Press. Claims of similar refusals by bishops and cardinals have sometimes been made, but there appears to be no evidence to support them.

The original Latin reads: Quid dices de primariis huius Gimnasii philosophis, qui, aspidis pertinacia repleti, nunquam, licet me ultro dedita opera millies offerente, nec Planetas, nec , nec perspicillum, videre voluerunt?

Verum ut ille aures, sic isti oculos, contra veritatis lucem obturarunt. It is a pun on Colombe's surname, which is the feminine plural form of the Italian word for "Dove.

Galileo, Bellarmine, and the Bible. University of Notre Dame Press. Galileo, science, and the church with foreword by Stillman Drake 3rd ed.

University of Michigan Press. Archived from the original on Galileo's Inquisition Trial Revisited. The Trial of Galileo, — A copy of Finocchiaro's translation of the letter is available on-line.

This cannot have been the case, however, because the meeting did not occur until several days after the propositions had been referred to them.

University of California Press. Archived from the original on September 30, Retrieved October 29, March , The Inquisition's Semicolon: Punctuation, Translation, and Science in the Condemnation of the Copernican System pdf , , pp.

Retrieved 9 August The Globe and Mail. University of Missouri—Kansas City. Retrieved 21 June Finocchiaro's translation of the Inquisition's judgment against Galileo is available online.

The same verdict would have been possible even if the opinions had been subject only to the less serious censure of "erroneous in faith" Fantoli, , p.

Finocchiaro's translation of the Inquisition's judgement against Galileo is available on-line. When Fulgenzio Micanzio, one of Galileo's friends in Venice, sought to have Galileo's Discourse on Floating Bodies reprinted in , he was informed by the Venetian Inquisitor that the Inquisition had forbidden further publication of any of Galileo's works Favaro , , Return to other article: She and Eleanor met when she was covering Franklin Roosevelt's first campaign for the election.

It was then that the women developed feelings for one another which segued into intimacy. The only real complaint I have is that as other U.

As the sands of time shift appears to be the mantra of this book. This is a view of life in the 's thru the late '40's within the extended Roosevelt political family, where regardless of what transpired, life appeared to be ostensibly controlled.

It is a historical view of Eleanor, Franklin and Leona Hickson. It is woven with honesty and tenderness, revealing stunning characters based on impeccable research, as it presents a well rounded view of life in post Depression America.

The treatment of the relationship between Eleanor and Hick is done in a manner that is honest, yet sensitive. It is an excellent study of managing human relationships that work for all involved.

I was surprised at how emotionally engaging this book was! This is so much more than a historical landscape created by Quinn as a period piece.

It is one of the three best books I have read in the past year. The subsequent effort is brisk paced, entertaining and an excellent work about public life in America!

This book is not an exciting page-turner, but it's well-written, filled with a wealth of detail and material gleaned from personal letters and journals of the people involved, so that readers feel as though they are experiencing the USA in the s..

If you are looking for prurient sexual details, those are lacking. The writing somewhat mimics Eleanor Roosevelt's matter-of-fact style of writing, with a homey, personal feel..

Susan Quinn is familiar with locations and people mentioned in the narrative, so the descriptions are infused with emotional warmth and detailed descriptions.

The close friendships and romances between the characters are not given more drama or implied scandal than what was described in contemporary correspondence and journals..

A lot of the author's interpretation of history that was a little simplistic. However it was good that she emphasized Lorena Hicks' work in the Roosevelt administration that I was unaware of.

She was out in the field a lot observing and reporting back regarding the dreadful living conditions she observed and helped implement some of Roosevelt's policies in that regard.

Her loving relationship with Eleanor of course was the main theme, even though that changed over the years. Would have liked to have seen more direct quotes from the letters they exchanged.

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I no longer feel disturbed by the author's allegations. I've gained a new pwerpective and I do strongly recommend this book.

Kindle Edition Verified Purchase. This was a well written book that told the story of the relationship of two outstanding women. The author placed the relationship in the context of the history of the time.

Eleanor came across as very human. Although she remained married to FDR, she remained estranged and went on to build her own life apart from him.

This included a supportive emotional life with Hick, her dear friend. Eleanor was indefatigable in her service to the American people. I appreciate the authors insights into the lives of these two remarkable women.

In recent years, Eleanor Roosevelt's - bisexuality has been made public. For a number of years, she and her partner Lorena Hickock - developed a deep and close personal relationship.

Both women had survived childhood abuse. Both chafed at the androcentric, chauvinistic world in which they lived. Both were drawn to each other.

This is a very fast paced book and to the author's credit, no apologies are made for the fact that these two women loved one another.

Another good thing about this book is that it shows how two women can successfully find love and it helps dispel homophobia, which sadly was the order of the day when these women met one another.

The tone of acceptance can be found throughout the book and that is what makes it such a good read. It is well known that FDR had a mistress for many years.

It is also well known that these two distant cousins who married did not have a marriage made in heaven. Their son Elliott Roosevelt chronicles this in his books about Eleanor and Franklin.

Eleanor and Lorena wrote each other loving missives over the years which support the fact that they loved each other intimately. To author Susan Quinn's credit she presents this loving paring in a straightforward and matter of fact manner, much as Hick covered the news during her career as a news reporter.

These women in some ways appear to be obverse sides of a coin. Eleanor was the classic "poor little rich girl" whose society mother was disinterested in her.

The then future First Lady grew up in an emotionally bankrupt house and had feelings of inferiority because of her appearance.

Hick was born into poverty and became motherless at age She went to work at a very early age and earned her diploma.

For many years she enjoyed success as a news reporter despite an unsuccessful stint in college. She and Eleanor met when she was covering Franklin Roosevelt's first campaign for the election.

It was then that the women developed feelings for one another which segued into intimacy. The only real complaint I have is that as other U.

As the sands of time shift appears to be the mantra of this book. This is a view of life in the 's thru the late '40's within the extended Roosevelt political family, where regardless of what transpired, life appeared to be ostensibly controlled.

It is a historical view of Eleanor, Franklin and Leona Hickson. It is woven with honesty and tenderness, revealing stunning characters based on impeccable research, as it presents a well rounded view of life in post Depression America.

The treatment of the relationship between Eleanor and Hick is done in a manner that is honest, yet sensitive. It is an excellent study of managing human relationships that work for all involved.

I was surprised at how emotionally engaging this book was! This is so much more than a historical landscape created by Quinn as a period piece.

It is one of the three best books I have read in the past year. The subsequent effort is brisk paced, entertaining and an excellent work about public life in America!

This book is not an exciting page-turner, but it's well-written, filled with a wealth of detail and material gleaned from personal letters and journals of the people involved, so that readers feel as though they are experiencing the USA in the s..

If you are looking for prurient sexual details, those are lacking. The writing somewhat mimics Eleanor Roosevelt's matter-of-fact style of writing, with a homey, personal feel..

Susan Quinn is familiar with locations and people mentioned in the narrative, so the descriptions are infused with emotional warmth and detailed descriptions.

The close friendships and romances between the characters are not given more drama or implied scandal than what was described in contemporary correspondence and journals..

A lot of the author's interpretation of history that was a little simplistic. However it was good that she emphasized Lorena Hicks' work in the Roosevelt administration that I was unaware of.

She was out in the field a lot observing and reporting back regarding the dreadful living conditions she observed and helped implement some of Roosevelt's policies in that regard.

Her loving relationship with Eleanor of course was the main theme, even though that changed over the years.

Would have liked to have seen more direct quotes from the letters they exchanged. See all reviews. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers.

Learn more about Amazon Giveaway. Set up a giveaway. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. The Autobiography of Eleanor Roosevelt.

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The exchange having been reported to Galileo by Castelli, Galileo decided to write a letter to Castelli , [18] expounding his views on what he considered the most appropriate way of treating scriptural passages which made assertions about natural phenomena.

Lorini and other Dominicans at the Convent of San Marco considered the letter of doubtful orthodoxy, in part because it may have violated the decrees of the Council of Trent:.

Lorini and his colleagues decided to bring Galileo's letter to the attention of the Inquisition.

In February Lorini accordingly sent a copy to the Secretary of the Inquisition, Cardinal Paolo Emilio Sfondrati , with a covering letter critical of Galileo's supporters: All our Fathers of the devout Convent of St.

Mark feel that the letter contains many statements which seem presumptuous or suspect, as when it states that the words of Holy Scripture do not mean what they say; that in discussions about natural phenomena the authority of Scripture should rank last On March 19, Caccini arrived at the Inquisition 's offices in Rome to denounce Galileo for his Copernicanism and various other alleged heresies supposedly being spread by his pupils.

Galileo soon heard reports that Lorini had obtained a copy of his letter to Castelli and was claiming that it contained many heresies.

He also heard that Caccini had gone to Rome and suspected him of trying to stir up trouble with Lorini's copy of the letter.

By presenting his case there, he hoped to clear his name of any suspicion of heresy, and to persuade the Church authorities not to suppress heliocentric ideas.

In going to Rome Galileo was acting against the advice of friends and allies, and of the Tuscan ambassador to Rome, Piero Guicciardini.

Cardinal Robert Bellarmine , one of the most respected Catholic theologians of the time, was called on to adjudicate the dispute between Galileo and his opponents.

The question of heliocentrism had first been raised with Cardinal Bellarmine, in the case of Paolo Antonio Foscarini , a Carmelite father; Foscarini had published a book, Lettera Bellarmine at first expressed the opinion that Copernicus's book would not be banned, but would at most require some editing so as to present the theory purely as a calculating device for " saving the appearances " i.

Foscarini sent a copy of his book to Bellarmine, who replied in a letter of April 12, After some preliminary salutations and acknowledgements, Bellarmine begins by telling Foscarini that it is prudent for him and Galileo to limit themselves to treating heliocentrism as a merely hypothetical phenomenon and not a physically real one.

Further on he says that interpreting heliocentrism as physically real would be "a very dangerous thing, likely not only to irritate all scholastic philosophers and theologians, but also to harm the Holy Faith by rendering Holy Scripture as false.

He conceded that if there were conclusive proof, "then one would have to proceed with great care in explaining the Scriptures that appear contrary; and say rather that we do not understand them, than that what is demonstrated is false.

Although he believed that the former may well have been possible, he had "very great doubts" that the latter would be, and in case of doubt it was not permissible to depart from the traditional interpretation of Scriptures.

His final argument was a rebuttal of an analogy that Foscarini had made between a moving earth and a ship on which the passengers perceive themselves as apparently stationary and the receding shore as apparently moving.

Bellarmine replied that in the case of the ship the passengers know that their perceptions are erroneous and can mentally correct them, whereas the scientist on the earth clearly experiences that it is stationary and therefore the perception that the sun, moon and stars are moving is not in error and does not need to be corrected.

Bellarmine found no problem with heliocentrism so long as it was treated as a purely hypothetical calculating device and not as a physically real phenomenon, but he did not regard it as permissible to advocate the latter unless it could be conclusively proved through current scientific standards.

This put Galileo in a difficult position, because he believed that the available evidence strongly favoured heliocentrism, and he wished to be able to publish his arguments.

In addition to Bellarmine, Monsignor Francesco Ingoli initiated a debate with Galileo, sending him in January an essay disputing the Copernican system.

Galileo later stated that he believed this essay to have been instrumental in the action against Copernicanism that followed in February.

It borrowed primarily from the arguments of Tycho Brahe, and it notedly mentioned Brahe's argument that heliocentrism required the stars to be much larger than the sun.

Ingoli wrote that the great distance to the stars in the heliocentric theory "clearly proves Galileo did not write a response to Ingoli until , in which, among other arguments and evidence, he listed the results of experiments such as dropping a rock from the mast of a moving ship.

On February 19, , the Inquisition asked a commission of theologians, known as qualifiers, about the propositions of the heliocentric view of the universe.

Beretta points out that the Inquisition had taken a deposition from Gianozzi Attavanti in November , [38] as part of its investigation into the denunciations of Galileo by Lorini and Caccini.

In this deposition, Attavanti confirmed that Galileo had advocated the Copernican doctrines of a stationary sun and a mobile earth, and as a consequence the Tribunal of the Inquisition would have eventually needed to determine the theological status of those doctrines.

It is however possible, as surmised by the Tuscan ambassador, Piero Guiccardini, in a letter to the Grand Duke, [39] that the actual referral may have been precipitated by Galileo's aggressive campaign to prevent the condemnation of Copernicanism.

On February 24 the Qualifiers delivered their unanimous report: At a meeting of the cardinals of the Inquisition on the following day, Pope Paul V instructed Bellarmine to deliver this result to Galileo, and to order him to abandon the Copernican opinions; should Galileo resist the decree, stronger action would be taken.

On February 26, Galileo was called to Bellarmine's residence and ordered,. With no attractive alternatives, Galileo accepted the orders delivered, even sterner than those recommended by the Pope.

Nonetheless, Galileo's friends Sagredo and Castelli reported that there were rumors that Galileo had been forced to recant and do penance.

To protect his good name, Galileo requested a letter from Bellarmine stating the truth of the matter. This letter assumed great importance in , as did the question whether Galileo had been ordered not to "hold or defend" Copernican ideas which would have allowed their hypothetical treatment or not to teach them in any way.

If the Inquisition had issued the order not to teach heliocentrism at all, it would have been ignoring Bellarmine's position. In the end, Galileo did not persuade the Church to stay out of the controversy, but instead saw heliocentrism formally declared false.

It was consequently termed heretical by the Qualifiers, since it contradicted the literal meaning of the Scriptures, though this position was not binding on the Church.

Following the Inquisition's injunction against Galileo, the papal Master of the Sacred Palace ordered that Foscarini's Letter be banned, and Copernicus' De revolutionibus suspended until corrected.

The papal Congregation of the Index preferred a stricter prohibition, and so with the Pope's approval, on March 5 the Congregation banned all books advocating the Copernican system, which it called "the false Pythagorean doctrine, altogether contrary to Holy Scripture.

Francesco Ingoli, a consultor to the Holy Office, recommended that De revolutionibus be amended rather than banned due to its utility for calendrics.

In the Congregation of the Index accepted his recommendation, and published their decision two years later, allowing a corrected version of Copernicus' book to be used.

The uncorrected De revolutionibus remained on the Index of banned books until Galileo's works advocating Copernicanism were therefore banned, and his sentence prohibited him from "teaching, defending… or discussing" Copernicanism.

In Germany, Kepler's works were also banned by the papal order. Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems , which was published in to great popularity, [48] was an account of conversations between a Copernican scientist, Salviati, an impartial and witty scholar named Sagredo, and a ponderous Aristotelian named Simplicio, who employed stock arguments in support of geocentricity, and was depicted in the book as being an intellectually inept fool.

Simplicio's arguments are systematically refuted and ridiculed by the other two characters with what Youngson calls "unassailable proof" for the Copernican theory at least versus the theory of Ptolemy — as Finocchiaro points out, "the Copernican and Tychonic systems were observationally equivalent and the available evidence could be explained equally well by either" [49] , which reduces Simplicio to baffled rage, and makes the author's position unambiguous.

Pope Urban demanded that his own arguments be included in the book. Some months after the book's publication, Pope Urban VIII banned its sale and had its text submitted for examination by a special commission.

With the loss of many of his defenders in Rome because of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems , in Galileo was ordered to stand trial on suspicion of heresy "for holding as true the false doctrine taught by some that the sun is the center of the world" against the condemnation, since "it was decided at the Holy Congregation [ Galileo was interrogated while threatened with physical torture.

Their opinions were strongly argued in favour of the view that the Dialogue taught the Copernican theory.

Galileo was found guilty, and the sentence of the Inquisition, issued on 22 June , [53] was in three essential parts:.

According to popular legend, after his abjuration Galileo allegedly muttered the rebellious phrase "and yet it moves" Eppur si muove , but there is no evidence that he actually said this or anything similar.

The first account of the legend dates to a century after his death. The painting depicts an imprisoned Galileo apparently pointing to a copy of the phrase written on the wall of his dungeon.

After a period with the friendly Archbishop Piccolomini in Siena , Galileo was allowed to return to his villa at Arcetri near Florence, where he spent the rest of his life under house arrest.

His standing would remain questioned at every turn. In March , Vincentio Reinieri , a follower and pupil of Galileo, wrote him at Arcetri that an Inquisitor had recently compelled the author of a book printed at Florence to change the words "most distinguished Galileo" to "Galileo, man of noted name".

However, partially in tribute to Galileo, at Arcetri the first academy devoted to the new experimental science, the Accademia del Cimento , was formed, which is where Francesco Redi performed controlled experiments , and many other important advancements were made which would eventually help usher in The Age of Enlightenment.

There is some evidence that enemies of Galileo persuaded Urban that Simplicio was intended to be a caricature of him.

Modern historians have dismissed this as most unlikely. Dava Sobel argues that during this time, Urban had fallen under the influence of court intrigue and problems of state.

His friendship with Galileo began to take second place to his feelings of persecution and fear for his own life. The problem of Galileo was presented to the pope by court insiders and enemies of Galileo, following claims by a Spanish cardinal that Urban was a poor defender of the church.

This situation did not bode well for Galileo's defense of his book. Multiple authors have argued that the Catholic Church, rather than Galileo, was scientifically justified in the dispute over the placement and rotation of the sun and earth, given available knowledge at the time.

Referring to Bellarmine's letter to Foscarini, physicist Pierre Duhem "suggests that in one respect, at least, Bellarmine had shown himself a better scientist than Galileo by disallowing the possibility of a 'strict proof of the earth's motion', on the grounds that an astronomical theory merely ' saves the appearances ' without necessarily revealing what 'really happens'".

In his book, Scientific Blunders , Robert Youngson indicates that Galileo struggled for two years against the ecclesiastical censor to publish a book promoting heliocentrism.

He claims the book passed only as a result of possible idleness or carelessness on the part of the censor, who was eventually dismissed.

On the other hand, Jerome K. Langford and Raymond J. They claim Urban personally asked Galileo to give arguments for and against heliocentrism in the book, to include Urban's own arguments, and for Galileo not to advocate heliocentrism.

Some historians emphasize Galileo's confrontation not only with the church, but also with Aristotelian philosophy, either secular or religious.

According to a controversial alternative theory proposed by Pietro Redondi in , the main reason for Galileo's condemnation in was his attack on the Aristotelian doctrine of matter rather than his defence of Copernicanism.

Redondi's hypothesis concerning the hidden motives behind the trial has been criticized, and mainly rejected, by other Galileo scholars.

In the Catholic Church dropped the general prohibition of books advocating heliocentrism from the Index of Forbidden Books. After the matter had been reconsidered by the Congregation of the Index and the Holy Office, Anfossi's decision was overturned.

In , Pope John Paul II expressed the hope that "theologians, scholars and historians, animated by a spirit of sincere collaboration, will study the Galileo case more deeply and in loyal recognition of wrongs, from whatever side they come.

The Church at the time of Galileo kept much more closely to reason than did Galileo himself, and she took into consideration the ethical and social consequences of Galileo's teaching too.

Her verdict against Galileo was rational and just, and the revision of this verdict can be justified only on the grounds of what is politically opportune.

Ratzinger did not directly say whether he agreed or disagreed with Feyerabend's assertions, but did say in this same context that "It would be foolish to construct an impulsive apologetic on the basis of such views.

In , it was reported that the Catholic Church had turned towards vindicating Galileo: Thanks to his intuition as a brilliant physicist and by relying on different arguments, Galileo, who practically invented the experimental method, understood why only the sun could function as the centre of the world, as it was then known, that is to say, as a planetary system.

The error of the theologians of the time, when they maintained the centrality of the Earth, was to think that our understanding of the physical world's structure was, in some way, imposed by the literal sense of Sacred Scripture In January , students and professors protested the planned visit of Pope Benedict XVI to La Sapienza University , stating in a letter that the pope's expressed views on Galileo "offend and humiliate us as scientists who are loyal to reason and as teachers who have dedicated our lives to the advance and dissemination of knowledge".

In addition to the large non-fiction literature and the many documentary films about Galileo and the Galileo affair, there have also been several treatments in historical plays and films.

The Museo Galileo has posted a listing of several of the plays. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tommaso Caccini , a Dominican friar , appears to have made the first dangerous attack on Galileo.

Preaching a sermon in Florence at the end of , he denounced Galileo, his associates, and mathematicians in general a category that included astronomers.

Quoted in Langford, Quoted in Langford, [25]. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Blackwell , p.

Finocchiaro , p. How to Find a Habitable Planet illustrated ed.

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