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Cobalt Violet greys down considerably when mixed with white. Cobalt phosphate PV 14 Vehicle: Mineral color that greys into the colors of the natural world.
Warmer than Cobalt Violet, cooler than Manganese Violet and more transparent than either, Ultramarine Violet is one of many specialty pigments made by German chemists during the color revolution of the 19th century.
A cold color with the strongest tinting strength and deepest transparency of all pigments, modern Diox is useful as a high key tint. This purple is so strong that some use it as a black.
Diox makes a cold intense tint. Carbazol dioxazine PV 23 Vehicle: A good drying color that makes a natural-looking tint, this warm, reddish, semi-transparent violet is made from the compound manganese phosphate, first discovered in Manganese ammonium phosphate PV 16 Vehicle: Owning an oil painting made with expensive blues was once a status symbol.
Jan van Eyck used lapis — but only at the request of his patrons. Blue is the most commonly confused color in terms of its hue temperature.
There is a widely held misconception that all blues are cool. This is not at all the case: Mixed metal oxide from the early 19th century with an important place on the mineral palette because blues are rarely shifted to the cool, green side, like this one.
Very muted in its tint so most valuable as a pure hue. A medium, semi-transparent blue. Other Series 2 blues are transparent, so Robert Gamblin formulated this color for painters looking for more opacity at a reasonable price.
Cerulean Blue Hue has a higher tinting strength than its namesake. This color is well worth the price because of its working properties and unique color, which cannot be mixed.
Oxides of cobalt and aluminum PB28 Vehicle: Cool, transparent blue with green undertone; especially useful for painting sky and water.
Copper phthalocyanine PB With clean, pure masstone and transparency, Phthalo Blue, like all modern colors, has high tinting strength. Perfect transparent marriage of blue and green, this transparent Turquoise has high tinting strength and makes a high key tint.
Excellent for painting tropical water. Copper phthalocyanine, chlorinated copper phthalocyanine PB First synthetic color of the Industrial Revolution, discovered by accident in while a chemist was trying to formulate artificial crimson.
Cool blue with more muted tint than Phthalo Blue. It has a high tinting strength, is lightfast, and is especially beautiful in its transparency.
Ferri-ammonium ferrocyanide PB A great glazing color, warm Ultra Blue is one of the few mineral colors that is completely transparent. Lightfast with moderate tinting strength.
Consider using Alizarin Permanent instead of Alizarin Crimson to mix violets. Since most greens in the natural world have a high degree of yellow in them, painters will appreciate the yellowy warmth of Phthalo Emerald while beautifully transparent Phthalo Green serves as the cooler or blue shade.
Cobalt Green, made from a compound of oxides of cobalt and zinc, found favor with 19th century landscape painters after Cobalt Green makes valuable greys and is especially effective for painting the American Southwest, where green should be kept to a muted minimum.
A bright, light green mixture of Viridian and Cadmium Yellow. Opaque and useful to make muted colors of the natural world. An undervalued cool green with moderate masstone and very muted tint.
No combination of blue and yellow will yield this unusual color of the American Southwest. Oxides of cobalt and zinc PG 19 Vehicle: An important color for painters who prefer the direct painting techniques of the Impressionists.
This mixed color replaces the toxic arsenic-based original. A dark bluish green more closely resembles Verdigris than Viridian. First manufactured in , Phthalo Green has a very high tinting strength and transparency.
Consider using Phthalo Emerald, a warmer and more natural-looking color. Chlorinated copper phthalocyanine PG 7 Vehicle: Phthalo Emerald Green Yellow Shade: Had this warm version of Phthalo Green been made first, Phthalo Emerald would be a very popular color today.
Chlorinated and bromated copper phthalocyanine PG 36 Vehicle: Originally made from berries, this true lightfast color is a predictable mixture that can be easily warmed with Hansa Yellows or cooled with blues.
Gamblin Terre Verte is an excellent color for grisaille; it has a weak masstone and very muted tint. First synthesized in , nontoxic Viridian replaced Verdigris and Emerald Green as a glazing color by the turn of the 20th century.
It has good tinting strength, its tint muted like colors of the natural world. Hydrated chromium oxide PG 18 Vehicle: Anhydrous chromium sesquioxide PG17 Vehicle: A predictable mixed earthy green of the natural world that can be used opaquely.
For a modern pigment, Green Gold has a fairly muted, olive green masstone. Its most interesting quality is its warm, glowing transparency. Azomethine Yellow 56 PY Vehicle: At the special request of Nathan Olivera, Robert Gamblin formulated a contemporary version of Asphaltum that is true to its historic working properties but, unlike traditional formulations, is both lightfast and permanent.
In the studios of the Old Masters, painters pushed against the limitations of their colors. It contains silicates and aluminates that increase the transparency of the pigment.
Umber is found in sites where naturally occurring manganese dioxide combines with iron. Umbers and other pigments containing manganese make quick-drying oil colors.
Burnt Sienna and Burnt Umber are made by roasting earth pigments until the desired reddish colors are produced. Natural earth pigments often have uneven color and must be washed and processed into small particle sizes.
This labor-intensive processing led to a demand for synthetic iron oxides that were developed as Mars colors in the late 18th century. There is some discussion about why synthetic iron oxides were first produced, especially when so much pigment was then available in earth mines.
The most logical explanation is commercial painters demanded consistency in color and texture for the emerging house paint industry.
The British started to build homes with wood but they still wanted their houses to look like brick. Also, through the manufacturing process, shades can be changed.
Asphaltum was used when painters wanted to artificially age their painting to make them look like an Old Master could have painted them.
Organic in nature, the original Asphaltum was coal black and crumbly. The pigment was not ground into oil but rather melted into oil and turpentine.
Among the few transparent earth colors, Asphaltum was used in glazing and shading. But by the end of the 18th century, painters were dissuaded from using the color because it caused paintings to fade and deteriorate at an alarming rate.
Like their predecessors, contemporary painters are pushing against the limitations of their colors. Often painters ask if earth colors are less transparent today than hundreds of years ago.
The answer is YES. The bulk of earth pigments are used to color concrete for stucco and other building materials.
The result is a rise in cost and a decline in transparency. The late 20th century has produced the first significant change in iron oxides with the invention of transparent Mars colors for the automobile industry.
These colors are made by hydrating earth colors, a process by which opaque colors are made transparent. As painters we have come full circle. The prized transparent earth reds of antiquity have returned to our palettes.
Natural calcined roasted earth pigment. More opaque today than years ago. Calcined natural iron oxide PBr 7 Vehicle: Vigorous drier due to high manganese content.
Burnt Umber is useful as an underpainting drawing color. Because of high oil content, use thinly in under layers. Calcined natural iron oxide, containing manganese PBr 7 Vehicle: Originally a natural, more purple iron oxide imported from India.
Synthetic red iron oxide bluish shade PR Vehicle: Dense, with great hiding power. Synthetic red iron oxide yellowish shade PR Vehicle: Traditional earth yellow glazing color, originally mined in Tuscany.
Consider using Gamblin Transparent Earth Yellow for more transparency. Natural iron oxide PBr 7 , Vehicle: Vigorous drier due to high manganese content which also gives Umbers their dark color.
Natural iron oxide containing manganese PBr 7 Vehicle: Pure, hydrated yellow iron oxide goethite. Indispensable for naturalistic color-mixing.
Natural hydrated iron oxide PY43 Vehicle: A color prized by contemporary masters, this is a truly transparent version of Burnt Sienna. These new hydrated Mars colors give painters more clarity in transparency and higher tinting strength.
This is a truly transparent version of Venetian Red. One of the most popular colors of the 18th century recreated by Robert Gamblin, whose version is true to historic working properties — but lightfast and permanent.
At least since the time of the Neo-Impressionists there has been a controversy about making greys.
Thinking greys made from black are lifeless, some painters never allow black on their palettes; they only make greys from complements.
While overusing black in a painting will make it look dirty, neutral greys made from black and white are the same as neutral greys made from exact complements.
Greys made from complements are more lively because they are incomplete mixtures of one color next to another. So come back to black with Gamblin Chromatic Black, a neutral, tinting black made from complementary colors.
An interesting alternative to mixing with white, the Portland Greys quickly lower the intensity of a color without changing its Munsell value.
A triad of muted primary colors is created when Titanium Buff is added to these. Slightly warm in its transparency with a weak tinting strength.
Bone black PBk 9 Vehicle: Slightly warm in its tint, this leanest more matte black dries more quickly than Ivory Black. Though not as black as Ivory Black, Mars Black has approximately three times the tinting strength and is very opaque.
Cool in its masstone and strong, Mars Black is often the choice of the Neo-Expressionists and others who want to make black opaque marks in thick wet paintings.
Synthetic black iron oxide PBk 11 Vehicle: A neutral, tinting black made from complementary colors rather than the usual carbon or iron oxide blacks.
This most permanent of blacks is the only truly neutral black in masstone and tint. Long and ropey in texture, it contains no carbon.
Costs as much as Cadmium Yellows — but well worth the money. Copper chromite black spinel PBk 28 Vehicle: Excellent match to popular watercolor.
A light, yellow-grey made from a compound of titanium dioxide and iron oxide. This popular color is valuable in figurative and landscape painting.
Titanium dioxide PW 6 Vehicle: Ideal for reducing the chroma of reds, oranges and yellows. Ideal for reducing the chroma of violets, blues and greens.
Between half and three-quarters of the paint on most oil paintings is white, so the white color holds most paintings together.
When selecting white oil colors, consider tinting strength. Radiant White, our most buttery white, and Titanium White have the highest tinting strength.
Excellent for direct painting styles, they make the brightest, most opaque tints and will reflect the highest percentage of light off the painting surfaces.
Challenged, Robert tested all the Flake White oil colors on the market and found tremendous differences among them.
Perfect for painters working in warm light situations, such as painting at sunrise or sunset. Based on our Titanium Zinc White formula, it has a perfect balance of yellow and orange pigments to lighten and warm other colors, while maintaining their hue.
Perfect for painters working in cool light situations, such as painting under an overcast sky. Based on our Titanium Zinc White formula, it has a perfect balance of blue pigment to lighten and cool other colors, while maintaining their hue.
Titanium dioxide, copper phthalocyanine, zinc oxide PW 6, PB Monet would have loved it because he wanted his paintings to look soft, like velvet.
The covering power of Titanium White is useful for creating opaque layers, but T-Z White is preferable for color-mixing. Most useful all-purpose oil painting white.
Consider using T-Z White for color-mixing because it takes so much color to tint Titanium. Same tinting strength and opacity as Titanium White.
Excellent for abstract paintings. Bright and opaque Titanium Dioxide is bound with safflower oil, the clearest oil binder. Because safflower oil is almost colorless, the bright white of the Titanium pigment shows through Radiant White.
Titanium Dioxide PW6 Vehicle: The first true nontoxic alternative to Flake White. Its beautiful opalescent quality is of special interest to portrait painters.
Flake White Replacement has all the working properties of traditional Flake White: The most transparent white, Zinc is recommended for glazing, scumbling and alla prima painting.
Compared with all other whites, Zinc White has less hiding power. Zinc White dries slowly, so painters who want to paint wet into wet over a long time will find it useful.
Spread betting allows gamblers to wagering on the outcome of an event where the pay-off is based on the accuracy of the wager, rather than a simple "win or lose" outcome.
For example, a wager can be based on the when a point is scored in the game in minutes and each minute away from the prediction increases or reduces the payout.
Many betting systems have been created in an attempt to "beat the house" but no system can make a mathematically unprofitable bet in terms of expected value profitable over time.
Widely used systems include:. Many risk-return choices are sometimes referred to colloquially as "gambling. Investments are also usually not considered gambling, although some investments can involve significant risk.
Examples of investments include stocks , bonds and real estate. Starting a business can also be considered a form of investment. Investments are generally not considered gambling when they meet the following criteria:.
Some speculative investment activities are particularly risky, but are sometimes perceived to be different from gambling:.
Studies show that though many people participate in gambling as a form of recreation or even as a means to gain an income, gambling, like any behavior that involves variation in brain chemistry , can become a harmful, behavioral addiction.
Behavioral addiction can occur with all the negative consequences in a person's life minus the physical issues faced by people who compulsively engage in drug and alcohol abuse.
Late or missed payments would result in visits and threats from such crime family members. The Russian writer and problem gambler Fyodor Dostoevsky portrays in his novella The Gambler the psychological implications of gambling and how gambling can affect gamblers.
He also associates gambling and the idea of " getting rich quick ", suggesting that Russians may have a particular affinity for gambling.
Dostoevsky shows the effect of betting money for the chance of gaining more in 19th-century Europe. The association between Russians and gambling has fed legends of the origins of Russian roulette.
There are many symptoms and reasons for gambling. Gamblers gamble more money to try and win back money that they have lost and some gamble to relieve feelings of helplessness and anxiety.
The Advertising Standards Authority has censured several betting firms for advertisements disguised as news articles suggesting falsely a person had cleared debts and paid for medical expenses by online gambling.
The firms face possible fines. Gamblers exhibit a number of cognitive and motivational biases that distort the perceived odds of events and that influence their preferences for gambles.
For example, gamblers exhibit a costly aversion to betting against their favorite team or political candidate.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Gamble disambiguation and Betting disambiguation. This section possibly contains original research.
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August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Nelson; Loeb, Robert A. Blackjack and the Law 1st ed.
The History of Gambling. A History of Japan. Many Japanese are naturally prone to gambling; in the old Kyoto court the vice was rife, and in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries samurai would often stake their arms, armour, and horse trappings on a cast of the dice, even on the eve of a battle, and so have to go into action in incomplete panoplies, and sometimes with no armour at all.
In Tokugawa times the vice did not reach this extent among the samurai, but it became common in Yedo and continued to be so throughout the history of the city.
Sports and Games of Medieval Cultures. Liminality and the Modern: Living Through the In-Between. Retrieved August 17, Retrieved 5 September Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved 20 July To settle your conscience a layman's guide to Catholic moral theology.
Adamson - Palgrave Macmillan". Retrieved 30 May Florida bishops oppose expanding casino gambling". Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved May 14, The Principles of Project Finance.
Sharia and Social Engineering. Archived from the original on 16 November Costly Reluctance to Hedge Desired Outcomes".
Choosing between intuitive and nonintuitive alternatives". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Gambling mathematics Mathematics of bookmaking Poker probability. Casino game Game of chance Game of skill List of bets Problem gambling. Category Commons Wiktionary WikiProject.